A breakdown of Kustomer’s latest product feature releases, platform updates, and enhancements.
Send Messages and Create Tags with Business Rules
Watch our video and learn how to send messages with Business Rules.
Business Rules are the easiest way to automate actions and create scalable processes that free your team from time-consuming tasks.
We’ve been hard at work to unlock even more intelligence with Business Rules, and we’re excited to release new automation capabilities, so you can more easily manage your conversations and keep information up-to-date.
Send Messages Automatically
This one’s a milestone for Kustomer—enabling you to automatically trigger messages using Business Rules!
There are plenty of reasons to send automated messages—like letting customers know an agent will be right with them, or perhaps you have a specific note or promo you’d like to share. Automating these communications keeps customers informed, and your agents less distracted. And now that you can easily create these messages via Business Rules, you can activate them at a moment’s notice.
Business Rules let you control when an automated message is sent. Today we’re releasing our Conversation Update triggers, so you can send messages when a conversation is:
- Initiated (First Inbound interaction)
- Marked Done
Business Rules can send automated messages via Email, SMS, or Notes when a conversation update occurs. When utilizing Email, you can select from your available Email Templates.
Watch our video to see how easy it is to create automated messages with Business Rules.
Add Tags to Conversations
Tags keep your conversations organized and can act as triggers to perform automated actions in the platform. Using Business Rules, you can automatically add tags to conversations, helping you manage customers and escalate conversations to specific teams when needed.
Update Company Records
For B2B orgs, we’ve added the ability to update information on Company records using Business Rules.
Improved Usability when Managing Rules
The Business Rules list view now includes a more comprehensive preview, so you can skip a step in identifying criteria and keep a better track of your Rules. This view also includes a timestamp of when each Business Rule was created or modified, and identifies the user who created and/or updated the rule.
We’ve resolved a bug in which business rules were overwriting updates via the API or other locations. Business Rules will no longer interfere with more desirable calls.
Our Help Center article on Business Rules breaks down how to set up and manage Business Rules.
New Custom Report Builder Capabilities and UX
We’ve launched a new step-by-step Custom Report builder, featuring new templated paths when creating charts, as well as some usability improvements to the building experience.
These changes will help you better leverage this tool and drive insights from your team’s activity in Kustomer so you can easily share your desired metrics and successes with stakeholders.
- Start from Template: this new creation path provides a series of common custom report use cases so you can test the waters and get better acquainted with the builder flow.
- New Chart Type Picker: We embedded the chart picker in the data configuration step—no more navigating backwards to change visualizations.
- Improved Tool Tips: We added and updated tool tips throughout the building experience. These tips pop up when you hover over specific report actions and provide clarity around the information or action required. These updates will come in handy throughout your use of the tool, especially when selecting and building your chart data.
- Live Chart Previews: We enhanced the preview window to provide an accurate depiction of your chart as you build. When you select a chart type or add or update chart criteria, the preview will update in real time to ensure the chart output meets your expectations.
Self-evaluation is critical to continuous improvement, so we’re making your individual stats more accessible.
The Performance dashboard provides all Kustomer users real-time info related to your work within the platform. Now you can assess your performance on a regular basis, identify peak interaction times to ready yourself, and establish your own benchmarks so you can set realistic goals.
The dashboard is accessible from your personal account profile and shows exactly how you are performing at any time. You can filter by channel, and choose from a drop down of pre-selected date ranges.
- Total Conversations Marked Done
- Average Conversation Handle Time
- First Contact Resolution Rate
- Median Satisfaction Rating
- Average Outbound Messages per Hour
- Average Response Time Per Channel
You can access your data by clicking your avatar and then ‘Your Profile.’
Check our Help Center Article for more information.
The New Kustomer Help Center is Live!
We are thrilled to announce our fully revamped Help Center!
We redesigned and reorganized our help center to improve the overall user experience in seeking out content, and navigating through related topics as you browse.
Here’s what’s new:
- A new sleek and modern design.
- We redefined Home Page categories to more closely match the common topics you need to access and browse.
- We pinned quick links to the most popular search terms below the Home Page search bar so you can navigate to those topics quickly.
- We repositioned Article Tags, placing them at the top of each Article page, so you can see related content without needing to scroll to the bottom of the page.
- Breadcrumbs are now fully expanded on the Article page so you can more easily navigate back to a category.
Stay tuned for more updates as we continue improving our Help Center and create the best experience for you and your team!
Additional Platform Enhancements
- For conversations within the Timeline, the hyperlink color has been darkened so you can more easily discern a link in outgoing messages.
- When using shortcuts during a conversation, shortcut previews will now match the user’s individual language preferences for easier access.
- You can now use article permissions to share internal Knowledge Base articles with up to 50 teams or users.
- You can now opt to expand the size of the internal Knowledge Base, so it’s easier for your team to read longer articles and content.
- We added the ability for Conversational Assistant to initiate a chat conversation, prior to the end-customer making contact.
- Knowledge Base article preview links will now use your custom domain, replacing the previously used internal domain.
- Users can now click to expand images sent by your customers via WhatsApp.
- We fixed a glitch where the text of conversations rendered properly in draft, but became jumbled when it appeared in a conversation as an outbound message.
- We fixed a bug in form creation where our new multilevel list attribute was causing the form to fail upon save.
Splitting a Customer Timeline
The days of splitting a Timeline via the API are over! There are plenty of reasons why you might need to split or unmerge a timeline, such as when you accidentally merge conversations from two different customers with the same name into a single timeline. And sometimes it might make sense to keep two separate timelines in tact for a customer’s business and personal email.
Either way, you can now split conversations into distinct timelines. And it’s easy!
First, determine the need for two distinct timelines, and then:
1. Make sure both timelines exist, and create a new customer profile, if needed.
2. Select Split Customer from the Customer Options menu.
3. Enter the name of the new customer profile you want to split this customer into and select the timeline events you’d like to move into the second profile.
4. Review the information and hit Confirm Customer Split. The selected conversations are now listed in the new customer’s timeline.
Please note that you can only move conversations to another timeline. We are working on enabling you to move other custom timeline objects very soon!
Engineers Rejoice! The New Inbound Webhook Settings UX is Here!
Web, form, and email Hooks are the bread and butter of our workflow engine, sending your external data to Kustomer to populate information and automate business processes.
We’ve fully revamped the Inbound Webhook Settings UX to help engineers better manage the setup and maintenance of your workflow triggers inside Kustomer.
Previously, managing Hooks was incredibly manual, requiring pesky workarounds to make updates and debug. The new UX provides a much easier way to view and edit existing Hooks, capture errors, and troubleshoot to make ongoing improvements.
In the new Hooks UX, you can:
- View all active hooks, including Hook type, status, and description.
- Delete inactive Hooks and edit Hook titles and descriptions.
- Toggle debug mode on/off directly from the Hooks list.
- Navigate to error logs from your Hooks list, which now shows who created or updated a Hook, as well as respective timestamps for those events. In addition, you can view hook error logs directly from their associated workflows.
Make sure you pass these updates on to your engineers, and reach out to your CSM with any questions.
Enable reCaptcha on Knowledge Base Forms
We’ve added the ability to toggle on Google reCaptcha for Knowledge Base forms to reduce spam submissions.
reCaptcha protects your website from spam and abuse through an advanced risk analysis engine with adaptive challenges to keep automated software from engaging in abusive activities on your site. It does this while letting your valid users pass through with ease.
When enabled, the form will prompt an “I am not a robot” option. If Google feels the submission might still be spam, a more challenging question will be posed.
Simplified Rules Builder for Searches, Reports and Business Rules
We’ve consolidated the Operator list to improve usability and eliminate redundancies in the rules builder when creating searches, reports, and business rules.
Additional Platform Enhancements
- Our Fullstory integration is now available—providing web cobrowsing capabilities to help agents visualize customer issues the moment they occur, and directly linking replay sessions to their timeline.
- When a Gmail account is deauthorized in Kustomer, the email address will now appear in the deauthorization event in Org Logging.
- When debugging workflows, we improved readability by including each workflow’s step ID.
- You can now export data from all standard report charts to CSV for additional one-click access to your data.
Introducing Permission Sets
We are excited to announce the release of Permission Sets, which give you greater control over what your users and teams can see and do when using the Kustomer platform.
Permissions Sets let you define unique roles and and groups by granting access to data regarding customers, conversations, companies (for B2B) as well as proprietary data integrated into the platform, and let you determine whether that data can be viewed, edited, and deleted.
With Permission Sets you can:
- Deliver full create, read, update, and delete controls for all standard and custom objects.
- Control access to feature settings and actions.
- Apply any number of sets to either users or teams. If the Permission Sets conflict, access will be granted.
Coming in 2020: We are working on providing you the ability to grant partial access by object attributes, enabling create, read, update, and delete access to only a subset of the data.
Access defined by Standard Roles that previously existed in Kustomer has been carried over as Standard Permission Sets. If you created any Custom Roles, that access will also carry over, and each will be considered a Custom Permission Set.
While all clients will have access to Standard Permission Sets, Enterprise accounts are limited to 2 Custom Permission Sets and Ultimate accounts have a limit of 10 Custom Permission Sets. If you have more Custom Roles than the limit for your pricing plan, you will be grandfathered in at your current total.
Watch our on-demand Permission Sets tutorial here.
You can learn more about Permission Sets by checking out these Kustomer Knowledge Base articles:
Knowledge Base Enhancements
Optimize KB Article SEO
Over 90% of all web traffic starts with a search on a search engine. Therefore, ensuring your public Knowledge Base articles have high search engine rankings is critical to improving your customers’ self-service experience by making it easier for them to find answers without having to contact your customer service team.
That’s why we’ve made it easy to manage article SEO in your Knowledge Base. By default, Kustomer will auto-populate a public article’s SEO Title, SEO Description, and SEO Keywords and provide a search results preview once an article is created.
You can choose to manually optimize your article content by editing these fields to further improve your SEO rankings in search engines. Additionally, optimization is unique by language of the article further helping all your customers find your content.
You can learn more about managing SEO here.
Internal Knowledge Base Article Permissions
You can now choose to share access with internal Knowledge Base articles to certain teams or individuals within your organization. By only providing the content that is relevant, you can help your team stay focused and quickly find the content they need.
In addition, you can create more tailored articles for specific groups based on their roles and the specific functions they perform. Check out this article to learn how to set permissions for an internal Knowledge Base article.
Multi Level Lists Now Available in KB Forms
When creating a form, you have the option of adding multi-level drop down questions that will enable you to gather more detailed information from your customers on a specific topic. Learn more about the Kustomer Form Builder.
Set Default Phone Number Country Code
You can now change the default country code that automatically appears when creating or editing a customer’s phone number to a country other than the United States. Automatically defaulting to the country code most common among your customers will save your team time when setting up phone numbers in Kustomer.
As always, your team can continue to manually change the country code when the phone number is from a country other than the default you selected.
Check out our article to learn more about setting a default country code.
New Chat Capabilities and Improvements
- End-customers can view and expand images your agents send via Chat without needing to download.
- You can customize your company’s Fallback email address directly in Chat Settings, so when end-customers opt for email follow-up within the Chat widget, you can specify the email address from which those follow-ups are sent.
- When your organization is offline, the ‘Estimated Wait Time’ label has been removed from the Chat header, so end-customers are clearly aware your team is unavailable. This label will also disappear from the header once an agent has joined the conversation.
Additional Platform Enhancements
- You can bulk clear workflow errors in our Workflow Builder, which should come in handy when creating and refining new workflows. If errors are made while building and testing new workflows, especially ones that involve integrations from back-end tools, quickly clearing these errors will help to identify any unrelated workflow errors that require attention.
- Organizations can enable or disable emojis from being used in customer-facing conversations.
- The Audit Log can now be filtered by Event Type, so you can drill down and audit changes to your system more carefully. Filter by Conversation ID, Customer ID, User, or Setting.
- We’ve added WhatsApp and Twitter to Org Logging, which will notify you of any authentication errors on these channels.
- Twitter and WhatsApp have been added to Satisfaction Reporting charts, so you can analyze satisfaction ratings across all channels in which you deploy surveys.
- For Amazon Connect users, we’ve optimized incoming Voice conversation assignment to reduce abandonment rates and ensure every Conversation is assigned to an available agent.
Knowledge Base Updates
Multiple Branded Knowledge Bases
You can now create Knowledge Bases for multiple brands in a single Kustomer instance. Each Knowledge Base can have its own articles and categories to easily organize and present content per brand. You can use custom themes and forms to provide a unique visual identity and customer experience for every brand that your business operates.
Multiple Knowledge Bases
If you have an article that is relevant across different brands you can choose to share that article between different Knowledge Bases. For example, if you operate different brands, but each one has the same return policy, you can create a single article on the subject and place it in the Knowledge Bases of both brands.
Whether you have multiple Knowledge Bases or just one, each will have its own set of categories. Within a Knowledge Base, you can now share an article across multiple categories. For example, if you have different categories for versions A, B, and C of a product, but all three have the same installation process, you only need to create one “How to Install” article.
Sharing articles makes it easier and faster to administer the Kustomer Knowledge Base by reducing your need to create and manage multiple articles with duplicate content.
Read more about Knowledge Bases here.
Deeper Insights in Team Pulse
We’ve recently updated Team Pulse to make it faster and easier for managers to have deeper insights into the performance of their teams during their current shift.
- Multi-Select Agent Filter
Managers can now choose multiple individual agents in the ‘Search by Agent’ filter to quickly view the work of a specific group of agents.
- Unique URLs for Filtered Searches
In addition, each filtered search will create a unique URL, which allows managers to bookmark the search to make it faster to replicate and share that view in the future.
- Sneak Peek of Current Conversations
Recently, we added an activity column in Team Pulse that shows how many open and snoozed conversations each agent is currently assigned. By hovering over the number in the column, managers can view each agent’s full list of conversations with one-click access directly to the detailed conversation view.
- Sneak Peek Timestamps and Sorting
Conversations shown in the sneak peek list also include the time they were last worked on. Additionally, the list is sorted with open conversations shown first from earliest updated to latest and then snoozed conversations in the same time-based order. This provides managers an immediate understanding of the conversations that need action.
- Total Conversations Done Column
Team Pulse reports also now include a column that shows the total conversations that are marked done by each agent during their shift. This gives managers a quick understanding of the productivity of their team that day.
Read more about Team Pulse here.
Updates to the Queue Dashboard & Report
- We’ve updated the definition of Available Agents and Conversations per Available Agent to only consider logged in agents in available, routable states. Previously these metrics included agents in our default ‘Unavailable’ state as well as any custom unavailable states like ‘Break’ or ‘Lunch’. This update will make it easier for admins to quickly understand their team’s availability for inbound conversations.
- Average First Routed Response Time is now available, letting you know how quickly, on average, an agent sends their first reply to conversations that have been routed to them.
New Team Report Metrics
Admins can now track an agent’s Overall Average Response Time per channel in the Team report. This is defined as the average time between each inbound customer message and the agent’s corresponding outbound response to that message, and provides better insight into an agent’s time management over the course of a conversation.
Additional Platform Enhancements
- Agents can manually retrigger satisfaction surveys at any time. This will come in handy if a customer, who initially gives a bad response, is given another opportunity to provide feedback once a more desirable resolution is achieved.
- Knowledge Base forms support snippets, enabling multilingual translations of forms and field descriptions and eliminating the need to create multiple versions of forms to accommodate different languages
- You can now add Chat Presence as a column in your Searches, indicating whether a customer is active in the Chat window or if they have exited.
- Android and iOS Chat now support Business Hours, so companies can set mobile chat availability worldwide.
- MessageBird is now available for integrating SMS and WhatsApp conversations into Kustomer.
We’ve recently added the ability to customize notifications of inbound customer messages by channel. This helps you prioritize channels and ensures that you never miss a message for the ones most important to you.
You now have the option to receive notifications in the Kustomer app, through email or both, and designate the frequency (Always, When Logged Out, or Never) for each channel you have installed on Kustomer, when:
- A message is sent via the channel by a customer you follow or to a conversation you’re assigned to
- A customer starts a new conversation in that channel
- A customer sends any message through the channel
You can also add a different sound notifications for each channel when a new message arrives.
Learn more about how to customize and control your notifications here.
Easier Search Management and Faster Discovery
We’ve recently introduced enhancements that help you more efficiently organize and find Searches for routing work, segmenting customers, and monitoring inbound and outbound conversation volume in Kustomer.
- Search Folders: Kustomer Admins can now easily create a custom Folder-based navigation in the Searches panel. Individual search queries can be consolidated into category folders that make it faster for agents to find the one they’re looking for without having to page through lists of saved searches. Folders and Searches can be dragged and dropped into their desired location to make organizing the panel even easier.
- Recent and Pinned Searches: In addition, we’ve made it more convenient for agents to quickly navigate to the search queries that are most relevant to them by adding a Recents section in the Searches panel. The Recents section will show each agent their 5 most recently viewed searches. Agents can also use any of these 5 spots in the Recents section to pin frequently used searches that they always want available for immediate reuse.
- Search of Search: A search dialog box has also been added at the bottom of the Searches Panel for rapidly finding specific searches. If you know the name of the search query you are trying to find, you can click on the magnifying glass to start typing it in. Results that match your input will automatically show as you enter your term.
Manage Web Chat Availability
- If your business operates in multiple regions, you can now set the hours Kustomer Web Chat is available by time zone through the platform’s Business Schedule settings.
- Customizable chat business schedules give you the control to ensure you are setting the proper expectations with customers in each region and that you are delivering on SLAs.
Read more about Business Schedules here.
Knowledge Base Article Tagging
- You can now create and add tags to new and existing public articles in your Knowledge Base. Article tags help reduce inbound service inquiries by linking related articles together across categories to make it easier for your customers to find the answers they’re searching for on their own.
- You can add up to 20 new and existing tags through the Article Details Pane. Once an article is published, tags will display in the footer as a part of a “Tag Cloud”, where customers can click on individual tags to see related articles using that tag.
- To get started using tags, you will need to apply the Tag Cloud Template to your existing Knowledge Base theme.
- In addition to adding tags, you can also now drag and drop to reorder your Knowledge Base’s list of categories.
- Learn more about tagging articles and applying the Tag Cloud Template to your existing theme here.
Integrate Twilio for WhatsApp with Kustomer
- Connect Twilio for WhatsApp Business with the Kustomer platform to deliver a personalized, efficient, and effortless service experience for your customers across the globe.
- How it Works: Easily install Twilio’s WhatsApp Business Application on the Kustomer platform like all of your other channels and insert your API key to start receiving messages, sharing images, and other rich media from customers.
- You can track the impact of your team’s service by using Kustomer’s native customer satisfaction solution to survey customers engaging via Twilio for WhatsApp Business. In addition, Twilio for WhatsApp Business is incorporated into the reporting and analytics of the platform to give you a complete view of the performance of your customer service team.
- If you are interested in deploying Twilio for WhatsApp Business you need to:
- Be approved by WhatsApp for Business API access.
- Have a Twilio WhatsApp account to send and receive messages.
See our Knowledge Base for more details.
Audit Log: Search and Shortcut Settings
- The Audit Log can now track any changes made to Search or Shortcut settings, allowing you to quickly troubleshoot sudden unexpected behavior in either area.
- These enhancements provide new insights into events occurring in the platform by tracking the actions of agents and other users to guard against internal misuse and ensure data security.
Knowledge Base Form Builder
- We’ve launched an intuitive visual form builder so you can quickly create forms without using code in order to obtain customer feedback or support requests.
- The visual form builder can be found under Knowledge Base settings and enables you to quickly choose from a list of commonly used attributes (e.g., Name, Email, etc.) and form components (e.g., Dropdown, Text Paragraph, etc.).
- Form fields can be easily customized to ensure that you receive all required information, make it easy for customers to understand the information you are seeking, and minimize any back and forth between you and your customer.
New Business Rule Capabilities
- You can now create Business Rules to remove specific tags from conversations and quickly clean up unused categories.
- You can easily unassign conversations from a specific user and automatically reassign them using Business Rules.
Additional Platform Enhancements
- Kustomer Chat will now automatically include a timestamp on the last message sent as well as note the amount of time since it was sent.
- When composing Bulk Messaging, you can now assign the Conversations to another Queue.
- Shortcut titles and categories now support Snippets, so Shortcut titles will appear and be searchable in the default language your agent chose for the Kustomer platform.
- You can now drag and drop an image or PDF for upload directly in a Chat conversation to send to customers.
- We added global language and snippet support for Urdu and Punjabi.
- Filtering is now available for our Standard Reports, enabling you to view only the data you want to see and uncover additional performance insights.
- Apply one or multiple filters in order to quickly gauge results for items such as how your teams and users are handling conversation traffic, variations in performance across your support channels, and attainment of your SLA policies.
Enhanced CSV Export Capabilities
- Leverage our enhanced CSV export functionality to get the data you need out of Kustomer quickly and easily for point-in-time analysis in other systems.
- Easily identify which data you would like to include in a CSV export, customize the order in which it’s displayed, and access past exports stored in the new export library for future use without having to start from scratch.
See our Knowledge Base for more details.
Additional Platform Enhancements
- The maximum number of queues that can be routed to a single team of agents for companies on our Enterprise pricing plan, and are using Queues and Routing, has increased from one to three.
- Agents servicing customers across multiple languages can now search for Snippets by description and text – not just the title.
- Knowledge base categories can be dragged and dropped to create a specific order based on a company’s preference. In addition, subcategories can also be dragged and dropped to create a custom order within each parent category.
- Companies can now add hyperlinked text within Conversational Assistant chat responses to better direct their customers to online information and answers to questions without having to speak to an agent.
- Team Pulse now includes a column that shows and links to each agent’s open conversations. Conversations that are open, but currently snoozed, are indicated by a yellow clock icon, so managers can get a clear understanding of an agent’s activity level.
- The Timeline Map can now be found in the customer options dropdown menu along with Merge Customer and View Audit Log.
- It’s important to understand the health of your system. Org logging helps you gauge how your system is performing so you know when things go wrong.
- The Org Logging dashboard tracks any errors that occur in your system, and Kustomer will send email alerts detailing the issue as well as best next steps to fix it.
- Kustomer currently tracks Facebook and Gmail authentication errors, with plans to connect more applications and monitors soon.
Check out our Knowledge Base for more information.
Additional Platform Enhancements
- Updated Chat Assistant to allow for unlimited picklist options to be viewed during a Chat conversation.
- Made email reply-to/from alias list searchable to help manage and leverage a greater number of email aliases directly in the customer timeline.
- Improved tracking and reporting of “total time spent” by agents, so admins can now track agent activity based on Kustomer default statuses (available, busy, unavailable, offline) and custom statuses they create.
- The Kustomer platform now alerts users when they open more than one tab in their browser running Kustomer, in order to limit the potential performance issues that occur when multiple tabs with Kustomer are open at one time.
- Added ability for admins to set and manage permissions around forwarding Kustomer conversation transcripts to outside email addresses.
- Created company-based classification in the Kustomer timeline for B2B organizations, which links company details to customer, conversation, and custom object views so B2B users can more easily manage multiple companies in Kustomer and quickly view relevant company details at a glance.
- You can now forward Conversation transcripts via email to other people and groups within your company, so you can share interactions with stakeholders who may not have access to the platform.
- Add a personalized message to the Conversation Transcript before forwarding.
- When you forward a Conversation, an event will be added to the Conversation in Kustomer, which will denote who forwarded the Conversation, the recipient, and when it occurred.
Default Send Actions
- For inbound messages, you can now set a default ‘Send Action’ button that appears in the Conversation. Defaults can be set for each of your channels.
- Program the default Send Action as “Send”, “Send + Mark Done”, or “Send + Snooze”.
- This new setting solves a minor platform issue for existing Conversations in which the Send Action would previously default to the last version used in the Conversation, which may not always be appropriate for a follow-up response.
Additional Platform Enhancements
- Refined SLA calculations to exclude time outside business hours when team is not expected to be available.
Streamlined the status of merged conversations to reflect the current status of the most recent conversation by default. For example, if an open email conversation is merged with a previous chat conversation marked as done, the new merged conversation will remain open.
- Added the new User Toolbar to Team Pulse, which shows, in real time, each agent’s capacity to be routed additional conversations.
- Optimized search functionality to recognize all parts of an email domain when entered as search criteria.
- Added ability to store column width settings when defining default columns in Search to ensure an optimal view of the data in each column.
- Added ability for users to configure by channel the Send Action buttons displayed in conversations.
- Improved overall UX of Audit Logs to provide optimal display of data and eliminate the need for horizontal scrolling when viewing key details.
- Optimized the reply functionality in Volume Control to default to a customer’s preferred channel of response.
- Added ability for agents to modify a customer’s default language directly from the conversation insights panel.
- Collapsed the default shortcut list view by category to make finding the appropriate shortcut easier during a conversation.
- Added option to clear all recently viewed customers from the Recently Viewed panel.
- Optimized Gmail integration so all replies to a single email create one connected, threaded conversation.